Ik kwam net deze tegen met ook allerlei cijfers uit de VS:
Smoking, vaping and hospitalization for COVID-19
Konstantinos Farsalinos, Anastasia Barbouni, Raymond Niaura
In fact, the consistently low prevalence of current smoking among Chinese patients with COVID-19 was further supported by the recent data recently released from the US CDC.
From a total of 7162 patients in the US, only 1.3% were current smokers. low smoking prevalence was also observed among hospitalized non-ICU (2.1%) and ICU cases (1.1%), while the population smoking prevalence in the US is 13.8%. These observations raise a possible hypothesis that nicotine might reduce the risk for severe COVID-19. Hospitalization for COVID-19 will inevitably result in abrupt withdrawal of nicotine and its beneficial effect linked to this hypothesis in smokers or users of other nicotine products. This could, at least partly, explain the association between smoking and COVID-19 severity among hospitalized patients.
Nicotine has been found to prevent acute lung injury in an animal ARDS model and has immunomodulatory effects.
There is also evidence for an interaction between nicotine and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, although such interactions remain unclear.2-5 In any case, the observations of a consistently low prevalence of smoking among COVID-19 cases in China and the US, together with the potential mechanisms through which nicotine interacts with the inflammatory process and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis involved in the development of COVID-19, warrant an urgent investigation of the clinical effects of pharmaceutical nicotine on COVID-19 susceptibility, progression and severity. The potential need to provide pharmaceutical nicotine products to smokers who experience an abrupt withdrawal of nicotine when hospitalized for COVID-19 or aim to follow medical advice to quit smoking to relieve underlying conditions that may increase vulnerability to serious or fatal symptoms should also be examined.
Finally, an important issue that also needs to be addressed is the effect of e-cigarette use on COVID-19 risk, particularly for Europe and the US where prevalence of use is higher compared to China. No studies recording e-cigarette use status among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in China were identified. Thus, no recommendation can be made for e-cigarette users, but all the above-mentioned issues relevant to the hypothesis about the effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on COVID-19 progression and severity are equally applicable to e-cigarette users.